Luzhiled's Library

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:question: Low Link(橋/関節点)
(graph/others/low-link.hpp)

概要

橋や関節点などを効率的に求める際に有効なアルゴリズム.

グラフをDFSして各頂点 idx について, ord[idx] := DFS で頂点に訪れた順番, low[idx] := 頂点 $idx$ からDFS木の葉方向の辺を $0$ 回以上, 後退辺を $1$ 回以下通って到達可能な頂点の ord の最小値 を求める.

ある頂点 $u$ が関節点であるとき, DFS木の根については子が $2$ つ以上, それ以外の頂点については 頂点 $u$ のある子 $v$ について ord[u] $\le$ low[v] を満たす.

ある辺 $(u, v)$ が橋であるとき, ord[u] $\lt$ low[v] を満たす.

使い方

計算量

$O(V + E)$

Depends on

Required by

Verified with

Code

#pragma once

#include "../graph-template.hpp"

/**
 * @brief Low Link(橋/関節点)
 * @see http://kagamiz.hatenablog.com/entry/2013/10/05/005213
 * @docs docs/low-link.md
 */
template< typename T = int >
struct LowLink : Graph< T > {
public:
  using Graph< T >::Graph;
  vector< int > ord, low, articulation;
  vector< Edge< T > > bridge;
  using Graph< T >::g;

  virtual void build() {
    used.assign(g.size(), 0);
    ord.assign(g.size(), 0);
    low.assign(g.size(), 0);
    int k = 0;
    for(int i = 0; i < (int) g.size(); i++) {
      if(!used[i]) k = dfs(i, k, -1);
    }
  }

  explicit LowLink(const Graph< T > &g) : Graph< T >(g) {}

private:
  vector< int > used;

  int dfs(int idx, int k, int par) {
    used[idx] = true;
    ord[idx] = k++;
    low[idx] = ord[idx];
    bool is_articulation = false, beet = false;
    int cnt = 0;
    for(auto &to : g[idx]) {
      if(to == par && !exchange(beet, true)) {
        continue;
      }
      if(!used[to]) {
        ++cnt;
        k = dfs(to, k, idx);
        low[idx] = min(low[idx], low[to]);
        is_articulation |= par >= 0 && low[to] >= ord[idx];
        if(ord[idx] < low[to]) bridge.emplace_back(to);
      } else {
        low[idx] = min(low[idx], ord[to]);
      }
    }
    is_articulation |= par == -1 && cnt > 1;
    if(is_articulation) articulation.push_back(idx);
    return k;
  }
};
#line 2 "graph/others/low-link.hpp"

#line 2 "graph/graph-template.hpp"

/**
 * @brief Graph Template(グラフテンプレート)
 */
template< typename T = int >
struct Edge {
  int from, to;
  T cost;
  int idx;

  Edge() = default;

  Edge(int from, int to, T cost = 1, int idx = -1) : from(from), to(to), cost(cost), idx(idx) {}

  operator int() const { return to; }
};

template< typename T = int >
struct Graph {
  vector< vector< Edge< T > > > g;
  int es;

  Graph() = default;

  explicit Graph(int n) : g(n), es(0) {}

  size_t size() const {
    return g.size();
  }

  void add_directed_edge(int from, int to, T cost = 1) {
    g[from].emplace_back(from, to, cost, es++);
  }

  void add_edge(int from, int to, T cost = 1) {
    g[from].emplace_back(from, to, cost, es);
    g[to].emplace_back(to, from, cost, es++);
  }

  void read(int M, int padding = -1, bool weighted = false, bool directed = false) {
    for(int i = 0; i < M; i++) {
      int a, b;
      cin >> a >> b;
      a += padding;
      b += padding;
      T c = T(1);
      if(weighted) cin >> c;
      if(directed) add_directed_edge(a, b, c);
      else add_edge(a, b, c);
    }
  }

  inline vector< Edge< T > > &operator[](const int &k) {
    return g[k];
  }

  inline const vector< Edge< T > > &operator[](const int &k) const {
    return g[k];
  }
};

template< typename T = int >
using Edges = vector< Edge< T > >;
#line 4 "graph/others/low-link.hpp"

/**
 * @brief Low Link(橋/関節点)
 * @see http://kagamiz.hatenablog.com/entry/2013/10/05/005213
 * @docs docs/low-link.md
 */
template< typename T = int >
struct LowLink : Graph< T > {
public:
  using Graph< T >::Graph;
  vector< int > ord, low, articulation;
  vector< Edge< T > > bridge;
  using Graph< T >::g;

  virtual void build() {
    used.assign(g.size(), 0);
    ord.assign(g.size(), 0);
    low.assign(g.size(), 0);
    int k = 0;
    for(int i = 0; i < (int) g.size(); i++) {
      if(!used[i]) k = dfs(i, k, -1);
    }
  }

  explicit LowLink(const Graph< T > &g) : Graph< T >(g) {}

private:
  vector< int > used;

  int dfs(int idx, int k, int par) {
    used[idx] = true;
    ord[idx] = k++;
    low[idx] = ord[idx];
    bool is_articulation = false, beet = false;
    int cnt = 0;
    for(auto &to : g[idx]) {
      if(to == par && !exchange(beet, true)) {
        continue;
      }
      if(!used[to]) {
        ++cnt;
        k = dfs(to, k, idx);
        low[idx] = min(low[idx], low[to]);
        is_articulation |= par >= 0 && low[to] >= ord[idx];
        if(ord[idx] < low[to]) bridge.emplace_back(to);
      } else {
        low[idx] = min(low[idx], ord[to]);
      }
    }
    is_articulation |= par == -1 && cnt > 1;
    if(is_articulation) articulation.push_back(idx);
    return k;
  }
};
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